What Is a Reed in Music? How Reeds Shape the Sound of Wind Instruments

In this post, we will cover everything you need to know about woodwind reeds and why they are important in producing sound.

Image of a musician playing the saxophone on the streets. Source: unsplash

Imagine rockin’ out to your favorite 90’s alt-rock anthem. The guitar wails, the beat slaps, and then enters the saxophone, blasting out an unforgettable melody. But wait, how does it make that sound? It’s time we learned a bit about the unsung star of the show: the Reed. We’ll be taking a ride through the intricate dynamics of the almighty Reed, a component so small, yet so significant in shaping those pulsating sounds enthusiastically echoing from your favorite reed instrument.

What is a reed? A reed is a thin strip of material, often cane or synthetic, that vibrates to produce sound in various musical wind instruments, such as the clarinet, oboe, and saxophone.

What’s really going on when you blow into a saxophone?

When you send a breath swirling through your sax, you’re causing the reed to vibrate. This simple vibration is what produces the unique ‘voice’ of reed instruments, ranging from the clarinet to the oboe. You see, these instruments, including our beloved sax, are part of the reed instrument family.

Image of a musician playing the saxophone on the streets. Source: unsplash
Image of a musician playing the saxophone on the streets. Source: unsplash

The reed is attached to the mouthpiece, securing it with a ligature and it typically has a flat side touching the mouthpiece. The reed’s job? It’s all about translating your breath into captivating musical notes. Pretty insane, right?

Image of a musician playing the saxophone on the streets. Source: unsplash
My favorite MIDI keyboard (at the moment):

AKAI Professional MPK Mini MK3

What is a reed in music? How reeds shape the sound of wind instruments | 717qmgla7zl. Ac sl1500 | audio apartment
My favorite MIDI keyboard (at the moment):

AKAI Professional MPK Mini MK3

I’m loving the AKAI MPK Mini MK3 for its compact design and the range of controls. It’s one of my essential tools. The velocity-sensitive keys and MPC-style pads are great for making beats, while the thumbstick and knobs give me precise control.

What is the reed made of?

Most often, reeds are crafted from the cane plant. This natural material gives each reed its unique character – no two are the same. The cane is grown across multiple regions, like France, Spain, and Argentina, then cut, dried, split, and graded to be transformed into reeds. This complex process results in reeds of different thicknesses and hardness, ultimately influencing the sound produced.

Choose reed size based on your skill levelUse a hard reed if you’re a beginner
Replace your reed every one to two weeksOveruse the same reed
Keep spare reeds handyLeave your reed care to chance
Do’s and don’ts with reeds in woodwind instruments.

How long does a reed last?

Typically, a reed can last anywhere from a week to two weeks, depending on how often you play and the intensity of your playing. When you switch from an old reed to a fresh one, you’ll notice subtle changes in your instrument’s sound. A fresh reed can revitalize your instrument and rejuvenate your musical experience. This is due to the reed’s sharp impact on the instrument’s overall sound.

What’s the difference between single and double reeds?

Single-reed instruments, like the clarinet and saxophone, have a single piece of cane (or sometimes synthetic material) affixed to a flat surface, typically the mouthpiece. In contrast, double-reed instruments such as the oboe, bassoon, and English horn feature two pieces of cane bound together, leaving a slight gap for air to pass between them.

Image of a clarinet's mouth reed. Source: wiki commons
Image of a clarinet’s mouth reed. Source: wiki commons

In single-reed instruments, the sound is produced as the reed vibrates against the mouthpiece. The player can alter the pitch by manipulating the length of the vibrating air column, commonly done by opening or closing the instrument’s keys. Double reed instruments, on the other hand, produce sound when the two reeds vibrate against one another. The pitch is similarly adjusted using the instrument’s keys.

The way a player positions their mouth—known as the embouchure—also varies between the two. For single reeds, the embouchure typically involves cushioning the bottom lip with the lower teeth pressing against the reed, while the upper teeth rest on the mouthpiece. Double reed players, conversely, need to place their lips on both reeds, necessitating a unique embouchure that can be challenging to master.

How does reed hardness affect the sound of instruments?

Well, turns out, reed hardness, or strength, significantly influences the sound and feel of your instrument. Reeds come in a range from 1 (the softest) to the intense level 5 (the hardest). These levels aren’t just random numbers, my friends. They’re meticulously designed to match your skill level and style.

Beginners would usually lean towards the lower numbers as the softer reeds are more forgiving and easier to play.

Beginners would usually lean towards the lower numbers as the softer reeds are more forgiving and easier to play. As you progress in your musical journey, you might find yourself gravitating towards the harder reeds, which offer more control and an enriched tonality.

Remember, your choice of reed will profoundly impact your instrument’s voice and your playing experience. There’s no ‘one-size-fits-all’. It’s okay to experiment with different hardness levels until you find the one that vibes with you the best.

What are the different types of reeds?

Reeds in woodwind instruments, come in a variety of types based on the structure and the instrument for which they are designed. Here’s a breakdown of some of the major types of reeds:

Type of ReedDescriptionInstruments
Single ReedSingle piece of cane vibrating against a mouthpiece.Clarinet, Saxophone
Double ReedTwo pieces of cane bound together that vibrate against each other.Oboe, Bassoon, English Horn, Contrabassoon, Cor Anglais
Free ReedReed within a frame, vibrating freely when air passes.Accordion, Harmonica, Concertina, Harmonium, Bandoneon
Triple ReedFeatures three pieces of cane.Pi (a Thai instrument)
Quadruple ReedFour pieces of cane, rare and mostly found in traditional Asian instruments.Sralai (a Cambodian instrument)
Percussive ReedA reed struck by a mechanism to produce sound, rather than blown.Jew’s Harp (though not always considered a true “reed”)
Metal ReedMade of metal rather than cane.Certain types of mouth organs, especially in Asia
Fixed ReedFound in certain bagpipes, these reeds don’t move freely like in free-reed instruments.Some traditional bagpipes
Tubular ReedA reed that’s effectively a closed tube at one end.African Aulos
A table that differentiates the types of reeds and some examples of instruments that utilize them

And hey, if you’re keen on diving deeper into this topic, check out this video for even more great tips and information.

Frequently asked questions (FAQ)

You’ve been vibing with reeds, and we know you’ve got some burning questions eager to burst out. Look no further! Here are some quick, one-paragraph answers to the most asked questions.

Is there a specific way to care for my reed?

Absolutely! Reeds are sensitive to their environment. You should remove the reed from your instrument after each playing session and store it in a proper reed case. This not only protects the reed but also helps maintain its humidity and shape.

Are synthetic reeds effective?

Yes, they are. Synthetic reeds offer consistency, durability, and longevity. They are a great alternative to natural reeds, especially if you live in a region with fluctuating climate conditions that could affect the performance of a natural reed.

Can I play on a reed immediately after opening it?

It is recommendable to moisten a new reed either with saliva or water before its initial play to obtain optimal performance. This helps the cane fibers to flex, enhancing the reed’s responsiveness.


Thanks for joining me on this melodious journey into the world of reeds. I hope you enjoyed it as much as I did. Remember, a good reed makes for smooth playing, just like a good joke makes for hearty laughter. On that note, what’s a wind instrument player’s favorite type of humor? Reed between the lines!

Alright, I digress. But hey, I read and reply to every comment. So, if you didn’t find an answer to your question, or just want to share your thoughts, drop ’em down below. Keep exploring, my friends, and never stop learning. Share this piece with fellow music enthusiasts, and check out the rest of my blog for more musical wisdom. Catch you on the next note!

Key takeaways

This article covered everything you need to know about reeds in musical instruments. Here are some key takeaways:

  • Reeds, made from cane plants or synthetic materials, vibrate to generate sound in musical instruments.
  • Reed hardness, which varies on a scale from 1 to 5, significantly impacts the instrument’s sound and playability.
  • The lifespan of a reed typically varies from one to two weeks, depending on usage.
  • Natural reeds have both advantages and disadvantages. They greatly influence sound but vary in quality and are sensitive to wear and environmental factors.
  • Reeds play a crucial role in music production, influencing the sound and tonality of reed instruments in home studios.

Helpful resources

Image Andrew Ash
Written by Andrew Ash, Staff Writer

Hey there! My name is Andrew, and I'm relatively new to music production, but I've been learning a ton, and documenting my journey along the way. That's why I started this blog. If you want to improve your home studio setup and learn more along with me, this is the place for you!

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